演講譯本分析:約翰遜辭職對英國的對華政策有何影響?他的辭職宣言講稿評價為何?

5 mn read

纏擾英國首相Boris Johnson數個月的政局不穩終於劃下句號,以好鬥、「永不放棄」著稱的Johnson最終都在逾五十位政府官員請辭、保守黨議員「逼宮」下黯然下台。日前他已辭去黨魁之位,並將以看守首相之身份留任至今年十月黨大會前選出新一任黨魁;在這三個月內,黨內缺乏大熱人選、內部如通脹等議題熾熱下,我們也可預計保守黨將會有一場內部權力爭鬥的「腥風血雨」。

回顧Johnson兩年多任期,由2019年帶領保守黨取得自1987年以來最大的議會優勢,歷經違反封城守則的派對門(Party gate)、脫歐動盪、內閣成員及幕僚性醜聞和多次被指向公眾撒謊等事件,終須於此刻回應多數民意問責下台。撇開他的功過,昨日他發表相對簡短的辭職宣言,卻是一篇值得分析、參考的演講──相比起他以往誇張的言辭,今次卻走平實、居中路線,四平八穩,也為他政治生涯的這個篇章劃下一個不算失禮的句號(當然也有敗筆)。

這篇文章主要會翻譯他的辭職演說,以及根據我多年作政治演說、撰稿的經歷,去分析演說的內容。

發言影片:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lozkiuwvQJo
“Good afternoon everybody.
午安各位,

“It is clearly now the will of the parliamentary Conservative Party that there should be a new leader of that party and therefore a new prime minister.
保守黨的議員非常明確地表明,該黨必須選出新的領袖以及首相。
👉全篇文章並沒有提及resignation(辭職)一字,而是以委婉的言辭指出此一事實。這其實是演講相對常見的技巧,談及敏感、尷尬的字詞以及事件時,往往會用此種方法抒緩觀眾的觀感,迴避敏感言辭,淡化演說者在事件中的角色。

“I agree with Sir Graham Brady, chairman of our backbench of MPs, that the process of choosing that new leader should begin now and the timetable will be announced next week.
我很同意後議會後座(1922委員會)主席Sir Graham Brady所言,遴選新任領袖的過程應立刻開始,其時間表將於下星期公佈。

“I today appointed a Cabinet to serve as I will until a new leader is in place.
我今天亦委任了新的內閣名單與我工作,直至新的領袖出現。

“I want to say to the millions of people who voted for us in 2019 – many of them voting Conservative for the first time – thank you for that incredible mandate, the biggest Conservative majority since 1987, the biggest share of the vote since 1979.
我希望向數以百萬計於2019年投票支持我們──很多都是首次支持保守黨──的市民說,很感謝你們重要的民意授權,是令保守黨自1987年取得最大議會多數,以及自1979年最大的得票比。
👉在今次的演說中,Johnson完全沒有提及過去數個月對他在任時的爭議,反而著眼他帶領保守黨取得的成就──議會的勝利是其中一環。這也是在作出這個被視為「退位」的艱難決定所獲的discretion──你既然都退出了,大眾就容許你作「揚長避短」的發言。寫演講稿時,其中一個重要的心態是要判斷聽眾的情緒、反應,以及他們能夠容許你發言的寬度。一旦越界,將會有很多意想不到的backfire。

“The reason I have fought so hard in the last few days to continue to deliver that mandate in person was not just because I wanted to do so, but because I felt it was my job, my duty, my obligation to you, to continue to do what we promised in 2019.
過去幾日我堅持留任、兌現民意授權的原因並非單純是我個人的渴求,而是我認為這是我對市民的工作、職責、義務,去繼續做我在2019年所承諾的。

“Of course I’m immensely proud of the achievements of this government. From getting Brexit done, to settling our relations with the continent for over half a century, reclaiming the power for this country to make its own laws in Parliament, getting us all through the pandemic, delivering the fastest vaccine rollout in Europe, the fastest exit from lockdown.
當然,我對今屆政府所達到的成就非常驕傲。由令脫歐成功,去處理我們與這片大陸超過半世紀的關係,重奪這個國家於議會訂定法律的權力,令我們渡過疫情,提供於歐洲最快的疫苗分發,和以最快時間完結封城。
🧐脫歐是否「成功」,一直都是各家之言。最明顯的問題,在於與北愛爾蘭關於邊境、貨運稅項的條款仍未妥善處理,目前也與歐盟、北愛政府三方處於僵持局面。

“And, in the last few months, leading the West in standing up to Putin’s aggression in Ukraine. Let me say now to the people of Ukraine: I know that we in the UK will continue to back your fight for freedom for as long as it takes.
在過去數個月,我們帶領西方世界去對抗普京於鳥克蘭的侵略。我希望向鳥克蘭的人民表示:我知道我們在英國會一直繼續支持你們就自由的抗爭。
👉過去數個月,Johnson政府在鳥克蘭問題上被視為比歐盟更為進取,提供武器等直接援助也比歐盟來得快捷,這事成為了Johnson政府的政治資本,當然也間接突顯「脫歐」的成果。將烏克蘭問題的評論安排於「脫歐」段落後,實在非常有趣。

“At the same time, in this country, we’ve been pushing forward a vast programme of investment in infrastructure, skills and technology. The biggest in a century. Because if I have one insight into human beings, it is that genius and talent and enthusiasm and imagination are evenly distributed throughout the population.
同時,在這個國家,我們推動了非常龐大,於基建、才能以及科技的投資計劃。這是一百年以來最大的。這是因為建基於我對於人類的一個觀察,這就是人的才能、熱誠和想像力是平均分佈在整個群體中。

“But opportunity is not. And that is why we must keep levelling up, keep unleashing the potential of every part of the United Kingdom. And if we can do that in this country, we will be the most prosperous in Europe.
但機會卻不是平均分佈的。這就是為何我們需要繼續減少落差,令英國每個角落的潛能都得以發揮。如果我們能在這個國家實踐,我們將會是歐洲中最為豐裕的。

“In the last few days, I’ve tried to persuade my colleagues that it would be eccentric to change governments when we are delivering so much, when we have such a vast mandate, and when we are actually only a handful of points behind in the polls – even in mid-term after quite a few months of pretty relentless sledging, and when the economic scene is so difficult domestically and internationally.
在過去幾日,我盡力說服我的同事在此刻更迭政府的話將是非常怪異:當我們正在落實如此龐大的計劃,當我們擁有巨大民意授權,以及只是在民意調查上落後數個百分點時──即使在中期選舉,在數個月的謾罵後,以及當經歷狀況於本土以及國際層面非常困難時。

“I regret not to have been successful in those arguments and of course it’s painful not to be able to see through so many ideas and projects myself.
我對無法令這些爭論成功感到懊悔,當然我無法親歷這些計劃和意念是令人痛苦的。

“But, as we’ve seen at Westminster, the herd instinct is powerful and when the herd moves, it moves. And my friends, in politics, no one is remotely indispensable. And our brilliant and Darwinian system will produce another leader equally committed to taking this country forward through tough times.
但,正如我們在西敏寺(議會)見到的,人民的直覺是強大的,而當人民移動,議會也隨之移動。我的朋友們,在政治裏,無人是不可取替的。我們優質的「達爾文」系統將產生令一個領袖,擁有著同樣專注投入,去帶領這個國家穿過困難的時刻。
👉在講述了一連串他無法「說服」黨員的經歷,企圖將焦點轉向保守黨的議員時,Johnson又再一次承擔責任,表示他們服從人民的意願,並少見地將自己的ego降低,指「無人是不可取替」的。在經歷數個月的”dogfight”,Johnson也有意識地避免自己被標記為”sore loser”,因此他雖有為自己辯護,但在首相生涯的尾聲時,仍是有意識地放下身段,保存聲譽。

“Not just helping families to get through it, but changing and improving the way we do things. Cutting burdens on businesses and families and, yes, cutting taxes. Because that is the way to generate the growth and the income we need to pay for great public services.
不單止幫忙家庭們渡過難關,也改變以及改善我們處事方法。減少商家以及家庭的重擔,以及減稅。正因為這是促進增長以及收入的方法,來支付更好的公共服務。

“To that new leader, whoever he or she may be, I say: I will give you as much support as I can.
對那位新任領袖,不管是「他」或是「她」,我會說:我將最大程度地支持你。

“And to you, the British public, I know that there will be many people who are relieved and perhaps quite a few who will also be disappointed. And I want you to know how sad I am to be giving up the best job in the world. But them’s the breaks.
對英國公眾,我明白有些人現在是鬆一口氣,或者有一些感到失望。我希望你們知道,對於放棄世界上最好的工作,我是非常傷感的。但這就是休息時間。

“I want to thank Carrie and our children, all the members of my family, who have had to put with so much for so long.
我想感謝Carrie(Johnson的妻子)以及子女們,我家庭的所有成員,他們在過去一段長時間承受了很多事情。

“I want to thank the peerless British Civil Service for all the help and support that you have given our police, our emergency services, and of course our fantastic NHS who, at a critical moment, helped to extend my own period in office, as well as our armed services and our agencies that are so admired around the world, and our indefatigable Conservative Party members and supporters, whose selfless campaigning makes our democracy possible.
我希望感謝英國的公務員系統,感謝他們給予的協助以及支持,包括對警察、緊急服務、在緊急關頭拯救了我並延續我任期的,令人讚嘆的公共醫療系統,以及享譽全球的軍隊和情報部門,和努力不懈的保守黨員、支持者,是他們無私的政治工作實現了我們的民主。

“I want to thank the wonderful staff here at Chequers, here at Number 10, and our fantastic prop force detectives – the one group, by the way, who never leak.
我希望感謝在契克斯(首相鄉間別墅)以及唐寧街十號(首相府)的職員,以及保護我的警隊──那一個永不洩露機密的單位。
👉這大概是全段最為人垢病之處──這句「永不洩露機密的單位」暗諷了在過去包括派對門等醜聞在內,向媒體「報料」的吹哨者。此舉不但突顯了Johnson的「小心眼」,也會被視為他認為問題在於「東窗事發」,而非「實際做了某些錯誤的事情」。這可算是與他整篇頗為平衡文章有所衝突。

“Above all, I want to thank you, the British public, for the immense privilege that you have given me. And I want you to know that from now on until the new prime minister is in place, your interests will be served and the government of the country will be carried on.
除此之外,我最希望感謝英國大眾,就你們所給予我深厚的榮幸。我希望你們知道,由此刻直至新任首相上台,你們的福祉將會被照顧到,英國政府也會持續前行。

“Being Prime Minister is an education in itself.
在任首相是一個學習過程。

“I’ve travelled to every part of the United Kingdom and, in addition to the beauty of our natural world, I’ve found so many people possessed of such boundless British originality, and so willing to tackle old problems in new ways, that I know that even if things can sometimes seem dark now, our future together is golden.
我穿梭了英國每個地方,在大自然的美景外,我發掘到很多擁有英國根源的人民,願意以嶄新方式應對一直以來的挑戰,而我明白現況或為黑暗,但未來是燦爛的。

“Thank you all very much.”
感謝各位。

👉最後Johnson亦花費很長篇幅去感謝各個單位,算是非常典型的操作。整體而言,他並沒有就在任期內的那些犯錯再次致歉,也並無提及在他領導下保守黨的民望下跌、中期選舉/補選大敗等爭議事件,算是「避重就輕」;當中也有一兩句明顯是「包拗頸」的說話,但也大體上保持了下台時的風度。

這次事件訓誡我們,在民主國家,雖然大家有時會感到政治動盪,但實際上,政客要為民意賣單,市民也對公權力有一定制衡。民主並不是一個完美制度,甚至很多時候,會無法deliver──畢竟在民意的引導下,國家也可以走上歪路。但他的修正功能,對權力的制衡,是獨裁、威權政府無法複製,也是它決定性的優點。

身處他鄉,我們需要更多了解、認知,也要以該國的視野,去看該國的問題。對於Johnson下台,其實政圈中人都知道,他並非一個對華強硬派,而是內閣有如Liz Truss等鷹派、後座議員向No.10施壓,才會落實部分對華強硬的政策,因此就對港、對中議題上,我並不會因此而感到失望。

新一任首相的競賽才剛開始,也沒有明顯的大熱人選,或許目前也適合觀察數月,再來分析新任政府對中的取態為何。

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被放逐的少年--23歲成為香港最年輕的立法會議員,及後相繼被取消議員資格、入獄,獲英美兩國議員提名諾貝爾和平獎,現正暫居倫敦,無法想像未來。生於藍領家庭,於嶺南大學、耶魯大學就讀,目前投入香港抗爭運動的國際連結工作,在世界的目光下替被禁言的香港人講出真相。 27歲的人生,高速展開。 漂泊、流離,在無法回家的路上,仍遙望香港的星光璀璨、人潮烽火,為無法取替的故鄉獻身。願半生歸來,仍是以香港為家的少年。

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